Perceptivity: How Yoruba ‘elder’ farmers use their secret weapons against insecurity in Ondo state, Nigeria


  • N. S. Olutegbe
  • T. I. Iyiola
  • O. C. Joseph


Security consciousness, Indigenous protective measures, Farmers-herders clashes, Agrarian communities, Insecurity incidences


In today’s global landscape, security consciousness is paramount, given the surge in criminal activities often leading to conflicts. Nigeria, notably, has witnessed a distressing rise in insecurity, leading to substantial loss of lives, property, and agricultural assets. This study explores the interplay of security consciousness and indigenous protective strategies in Ondo State’s agrarian communities, Nigeria. The study adopted a multistage sampling procedure, selecting 116 farmers within some selected agrarian communities of Ondo State, Nigeria. Data was collected using a well-structured interview schedule, while analysis used frequency counts, means, factor analysis and multiple regression. The prevalent forms of insecurity incidents which have triggered security consciousness included farmers-herders clashes (mean = 12.36), theft (mean = 9.24), abduction/kidnapping (mean = 7.64) and armed-robbery (mean = 4.01). There was an exceedingly high level of security consciousness among the majority. Vigilante patrol teams (56.9%), local security guards (50.9%), and community rules and regulations (40.5%) were the most utilized communal indigenous measures. Although personal traditional protective measures were less common, they are not completely out of use Regression analysis indicates that household size and perceived need for improved security significantly influenced respondents’ use of indigenous protective measures. The findings underscore the need to improve the government-controlled security system to safeguard the farming environment and nurture the already challenged agri-food system in Ondo state, Nigeria.




How to Cite

Olutegbe, N. S., Iyiola, T. I., & Joseph, O. C. (2024). Perceptivity: How Yoruba ‘elder’ farmers use their secret weapons against insecurity in Ondo state, Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Rural Extension and Development, 15(1). Retrieved from