RENEWABLE 2022-02-03T14:54:06+00:00 Prof. Jimoh Saka oladunni Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal, RENEWABLE - is an official publication of the Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Ibadan; that is published twice (June and December) a year in one volume. The Journal publishes carefully peer-reviewed original research articles on various aspects of renewable natural resources: aquaculture, ecotourism, environment, fisheries, forestry; and wildlife management. It covers diverse areas such as production, management, products, biotechnology, socio-economics, extension, health, physiology, nutrition, feeds and feedstuff, breeding and genetics, reproduction, farming systems, and man-flora-fauna interactions within the context of sustainable management of renewable natural resources. Review articles covering new developments in the aforementioned fields are also acceptable</p> Toxicity of Zinc and Copper on Heterobranchus bidorsalis Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809 Juveniles 2022-02-03T13:48:41+00:00 B.O. Omitoyin E. K Ajani F.E Osho M.O. Olaoluwa O Orisasona, O <p>Zinc and Copper released into the environment, through mining and waste combustion in Nigeria, are major threats to fish production. In this study, the sub-acute toxicity of Zinc and Copper to a commercially important fish species was investigated. Three hundred and fifty <em>Heterobranchus bidorsalis</em> (mean weight: 13.5±1.0g, total length: 15.0±0.5cm) were exposed to four different concentrations of copper and zinc for 96 hours in a static renewal bioassay to assess lethal concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>). The toxicity on fish was assessed using hematological and histopathological indices. The Median Lethal Concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>) was determined using probit method. The LC<sub>50</sub> for copper and zinc were 15.03mg/L and 324mg/L, respectively. Death of fish occurred after 12 hours in the highest concentration of 2000mg/L for zinc treatment and 24 hours in the highest concentration of 80mg/L for copper treatment. The mean percentage mortalities for zinc concentrations of 0.00, 200, 400, 900, 2000 mg/L were 0, 10%, 63%, 100% and 100%, respectively. While mean mortalities for copper concentrations of 0.0,10, 20, 40, 80 mg/L were 0, 10%, 77%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Exposure to copper resulted in frenzied swimming, mucus covering the body and death with their mouths wide open. Similar observations were seen for fish exposed to zinc except that after the death of the fish, there was a release of blood around the gill area. Significant decreases were observed for red blood cells, park cell volume, haemoglobin, and white blood cells, while increases were observed for mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin after 96 hours of exposure. Lesions observed include vacuolation, necrosis, cellular infiltration, irregular lamellae, severe sub mucosal congestion, degeneration of cells, haemorrhage and spongiosis in the gills, liver and brain of exposed fish. This study revealed that high doses of zinc and copper are harmful to <em>Heterobranchus bidorsalis </em>juveniles.</p> 2022-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Environmental Contaminants as Significant Threats to Ecological Health: A Mini Review 2022-02-03T13:53:31+00:00 A.O. Omonona <p>Environmental contamination has been established as one of the major global problems, posing a serious threat to ecological health and systems. These contaminants are spread through various channels, and find their way into the food chain via varying natural and anthropogenic sources and vary in concentrations within the ecosystems. The presence of these contaminants within the environment is majorly instigated by anthropogenic activities. The persistent accumulation and ubiquity of environmental contaminants in species, predisposes living organisms to toxicity effects. Hence, toxic effects of environmental contaminants to humans and animals include haemato-biochemical changes, immunosuppression, reduction in fitness, interference in reproduction, oxidative stress damage, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, histopathological and behavioural alterations. There is need to curb levels of exposure to environmental contaminants through the promotion of eco-friendly activities that could enhance ecological health.</p> 2022-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Lead and Cadmium Accumulation in African Spinach (Amaranthus cruentus L.) Grown on Soil from a Dumpsite 2022-02-03T14:10:36+00:00 T.O Oyaniyi T.O Fawole S.K. Omilabu N.O Olla F.A. Bidmos S.D. Olakunle <p>In this study, a nursery experiment was set up to assess the Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in Amaranthus cruentus seedlings grown on contaminated soil. Amaranthus seeds were broadcast on the nursery bed and allowed to germinate for one week before sprouted seedlings were pricked and transplanted into polypots containing soil from a dumpsite, topsoil and sandy soil (5 kg each). The seedlings were arranged in a completely randomize design with 5 replicates per treatment. The physico-chemical properties, Lead and Cadmium concentrations in all soil types were determined before planting, while data were collected for eight weeks after planting. Weekly measurements of plant height, collar diameter, and number of leaves were done, while Lead and Cadmium concentrations in the plants were determined after harvest. Lead and Cadmium were detected in the dumpsite soil and Amaranthus cruentus grown on the dumpsite soil. Highest height, collar diameter and number of leaves occurred in the contaminated seedlings. Amaranthus cruentus absorbed Lead (7.66 mg/kg) and Cadmium (0.54 mg/kg), which were higher than the recommended safe limits for vegetables (0.3 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively). In addition, transfer factors for Lead (0.53 mg/kg) and Cadmium (0.51 mg/kg) indicated high bio-accumulation of the metals by the vegetables. Hence, vegetables produced from dumpsite soil may not be safe for consumption.</p> 2022-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Effects of Faidherbia albida Del. A. Chev. on Soil Properties in Agroforestry Parkland Ecosystem in Garki Village, Katsina State, Nigeria 2022-02-03T14:17:32+00:00 M Ahmed M.N Danjuma M Zakariya, M <p>Faidherbia albida is an important tree species which contributes to soil fertility in dry lands of Northern Nigeria. This study assessed the effects of Faidherbia albida on selected soil physiochemical properties with a view to providing information on the species’ contribution to the nutrient status of dry land soils. Soil samples were obtained from the base of twenty one Faidherbia albida trees in two height and crown diameter classes. A total of 168 soil samples were collected at the end of 2019 cropping season to avoid masking of excessive salts from soil amendments and management practices. These comprised four samples taken at 2 m and 10 m radii round each Faidherbia tree at depths of 0 – 20 cm (top soil) and 20 – 40 cm (sub-soil). Soil composites were analysed for soil physico-chemical properties. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and T-test. The soil properties beneath the tree canopy, at 2 m and 10 m radii, were influenced by the trees. However, there were no significant differences among the soil physico-chemical properties across the distances, except for bulk density. Faidherbia albida altered soil properties and would be a suitable candidate for soil improvement efforts in dry land soils of Northern Nigeria.</p> 2022-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Genotoxic Effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) Karst and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kummer using the Allium Test 2022-02-03T14:30:12+00:00 Ofodile L..N. N. M. C Nwakanma E. Ikegwu I. S. Bolarinwa <p>This study determined the genotoxic effects of Ganoderma lucidium and Pleurotus ostreatus on Allium cepa root tips. Small bulbs of Allium cepa were grown in different concentrations of aqueous extracts of milled Ganoderma lucidium (0.3g/ml, 0.6g/ml, 0.8g/ml, 1.0g/ml) and Pleurotus ostreatus (0.25g/ml, 0.75g/ml, 1.25g/ml, 1.75g/ml). Five root tips from each bulb were harvested after 48 hours and processed for cytological studies using aceto-orcein squash techniques. The average length of root bundles was determined after 96 hours. Treatment with P. ostreatus extracts seemed to inhibit root growth in a concentration-dependent manner while that of G. lucidium did not inhibit root growth. Extract mitotic index (M.I.) was calculated for each extract concentration. The M.I. for Ganoderma lucidium extracts were: 7.1 (0.3g/ml), 5.7 (0.6g/ml), 6.2 (0.8g/ml), and 4.5 (0.1g/ml), whereas M.I. for Pleurotus ostreatus extracts were 6.7 (0.25g/ml), 6.3 (0.75g/ml), 6.0 (1.25g/ml) and 5.4 (1.75g/ml). In the root cells, extracts from both test samples revealed chromosome stickiness, vagrant chromosomes, spindle multipolarity, c-mitosis, and bridged fragments.</p> 2022-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Yield Potentials of Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don Seed Oil for Therapeutic and Industrial Uses 2022-02-03T14:39:38+00:00 B. O Rafiu I. O Lawal, I. O O. A Agbo-Adediran <p>This study determined the extractable yield, phytochemical constituents and physicochemical properties of Chrysophyllum albidum seed oil. Seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum were collected from two locations, air-dried, milled and cold macerated. The seed oils were extracted and purified using activated charcoal before qualitative screening to identify their phytochemical contents. The physicochemical properties were quantitatively determined. Cold maceration resulted in low seed oil yield. The phytochemical constituents included alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides, while tannins and flavonoids were absent. Physicochemical properties included: acid value (6.31 – 8.10 mg KOH/g), saponification value (254.70 – 356.60 mg KOH/g), iodine value (65.30 – 68.30 mg/g), ester value (247.50 – 348.50), pH (2.93 – 4.04), relative density (0.787 – 0.874 g/cm3) and refractive index at 28°C (1.45 – 1.46). There were slight variations in the yield and physicochemical constituents of the seed oils from the two locations, which exhibited non-drying characteristics.</p> 2022-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Adoption of Biosecurity Measures for Sustainable Aquaculture Production in Ekiti State, Nigeria 2022-02-03T14:54:06+00:00 K. Osakuade S Omitoyin <p>The study examined fish farmers’ acquiescence to biosecurity practices in Ekiti State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 150 respondents from three Agricultural Development Programme zones of the state. Structured questionnaire was used for data collection while data were analysed using illustrative and inferential statistics at p&lt;0.05 level of significance. It was observed that 91% of the farmers were aware of fish diseases and pathogens. Stunted growth (x? = 3.48±0.647), loss of market value (x? = 2.9±1.152), increased cost of production (x?= 2.86±0.811) and loss of fish stock (x? = 2.6±1.353) were the observed mean effects of fish disease. Most respondents (82%) isolated sick fish, but only few (3%) were committed to laboratory test and use of foot dip. The adoption level was 40%, indicating that the respondents were partial adopters in Ekiti state. Level of awareness, age, education, monthly income, and stocking density had significant relationships with adoption of biosecurity measures. To boost fish production, there is need for the creation of platforms providing enlightenment on sound biosecurity measures. There is also an urgent need for the provision of accessible and affordable veterinary services. These can be facilitated by the extension agents, NGOs and relevant institutions.</p> 2022-02-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE