RENEWABLE <p>The Journal, RENEWABLE - is an official publication of the Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Ibadan; that is published twice (June and December) a year in one volume. The Journal publishes carefully peer-reviewed original research articles on various aspects of renewable natural resources, forestry, environment, aquaculture, wildlife, ecotourism, and fisheries management. It covers diverse areas such as production, management, products, biotechnology, socio-economics, extension, health, physiology, nutrition, feeds and feedstuff, breeding and genetics, reproduction, farming systems, and man-flora-fauna interactions within the context of sustainable management of renewable natural resources. Review articles covering new developments in the aforementioned fields are also acceptable.</p> Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria en-US RENEWABLE 2971-5776 DETERMINANTS OF FUEL WOOD CONSUMPTION IN RURAL AND URBAN FARMING HOUSEHOLDS OF KANO STATE, NIGERIA <p><em>This research determined the factors that affect fuel wood consumption in rural and urban farming households of Kano State, Nigeria. A total of 258 respondents were interviewed during the data collection. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The results revealed that urban dwellers were more educated (50.5%), obtained more income </em><em>(N64,426)</em><em>, spent more on non-food expenditures (</em><em>N</em><em>63,000) and stacked fuel wood, unlike rural households who had less tertiary education (7.3%), lower income (</em><em>N</em><em>52,666), and spent less (N</em><em>16,000) while using fuel wood only as their source of domestic energy. Multiple regression analysis of the factors affecting rural household consumption of fuel wood had a R<sup>2 </sup>adjusted value of 0.642. Education, price of kerosene, household size, nature of cooking, accessibility and gender of household heads were the significant variables affecting fuel wood consumption. On the other hand, the urban households had an R<sup>2 </sup>adjusted value of 0.515 for fuelwood consumption; with age and household size being the most significant variables that determined the quantity of fuel wood consumed. Therefore, both rural and urban households need to create more income generating activities to be able to afford clean and superior fuels.</em></p> A. Y. Gaya A. Mustapha A. B. Mohammed A. T. Lawal S. Y. Ahmad A. U. Shu’aib M. Yaya Copyright (c) 2023 RENEWABLE 2023-04-12 2023-04-12 3 1 1 11 PATHO-CLINICAL EVALUATION OF Cavia porcellus EXPOSED TO WASTEWATER FROM OLORUNDA MINING SITE, SEPETERI, NIGERIA <p><em>Exposure to mining wastewater, which is an undesirable consequence of mining activities, may have detrimental impacts on animal, human, and ecological health. This study evaluated heavy metal levels in mining wastewater from Olorunda Mining Site and determined their haemato-biochemical and histopathological effects on exposed Guinea pigs. Mining wastewater (MWW) samples were collected from Olorunda Mining pool in pre-cleaned sampling bottles for heavy metals determination and exposure to the experimental animals. Forty Guinea pigs were divided into five experimental groups (n=8/group), which included a control (100% pure borehole water) and four treatment levels (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of MWW), all exposed for 30 days. Fully digested wastewater and tissue (kidney and liver) samples were subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Iron, Uranium and Vanadium) determination. Using standard techniques, haemato-biochemical and histopathological assessments were carried out on the Guinea pigs. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics at p&lt;0.05 level of significance. All heavy metals detected in the MWW were above the recommended permissible limits. Lead and Cadmium levels (in mg/L) in the liver [Group A (0.95±0.07, 0.05±0.01); Group B (0.97±0.09, 0.05±0.003); Group C (1.02±0.05, 0.05±0.01); Group D (1.22±0.87, 0.05±0.01)] and kidney [Group A (1.03±0.16, 0.66±0.02); Group B (0.87±0.94, 0.07±0.04); Group C (0.99±0.94, 0.07±0.01); Group D (1.26±0.19, 0.06±0.03)] tissues of treatment groups, were higher than those of the control group. However, significant differences were only observed in the kidney tissues. Haematological and biochemical alterations attributed to contaminant toxicity were observed, while histopathological architecture of the tissues evaluated showed different changes that were attributed to heavy metal toxicity. </em><em>There is a need for the re-channeling of the mining wastewater away from the Ajaku River so that it does not become a source of contamination to the river water system.</em></p> Adetola Adetuga Abosede Omonona Afusat Jubril Azeezat Adisa Copyright (c) 2023 RENEWABLE 2023-06-15 2023-06-15 3 1 12 26 RESPONSE OF Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) SEEDLINGS TO PLANT HORMONES <p><em>Khaya senegalensis is </em><em>valued for its wood qualities, beautiful figurative timber grains, brown colour, and use for production of quality furniture and household utensils. </em><em>This study assessed the early growth response of Khaya senegalensis seedlings to four different treatments: Indole-3-Acetic acid (A), Kinetin (K), 50:50 Kinetin and Indole-3-Acetic acid (KA), and control (C). The hormones were assessed at four concentrations (doses); 1 mg/ml (P<sub>1</sub>), 3 mg/ml (P<sub>3</sub>), 5 mg/ml (P<sub>5</sub>) and 7 mg/ml (P<sub>7</sub>). The treatments were applied on the leaves and stems of seedlings and total height, collar diameter, number of leaves and leaf area were monitored. The hormonal type and dose significantly affected seedling height and collar diameter. The interaction effects had a significant influence on leaf area and height of seedlings</em><em>.</em> <em>The 50:50 Indole-3-Acetic acid and Kinetin combination at 1 mg/ml yielded the highest height (14.03 cm), collar diameter (1.79 mm) and number of leaves (8). This could have positive implications in nursery production of Khaya senegalensis seedlings.</em></p> S. A. Clement T. M. Soba N. A. John Copyright (c) 2023 RENEWABLE 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 3 1 27 31 ACCEPTABILITY OF BRIQUETTE PRODUCTS: A PANACEA TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY GENERATION IN NIGERIA <p><em>The transition from fossil fuels to biomass energy has been identified as a major approach to lowering carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) and other greenhouse gas emissions in Nigeria. Briquette is a solid biofuel made from compressed biomass residues, which could be used as a source of energy in domestic cooking and heating. Renewable energy from briquettes has relatively low pollution emissions and huge potential for utilisation. Biomass briquettes provide minimal heating costs; have increased storage ability and high portability. Although, Nigeria has a sizable supply of biomass for briquetting, the marketability and technology are incredibly underdeveloped. This article highlights the acceptability of briquette products as possible alternative energy sources to the present high-cost and irregular heating energy sources currently available in the country. This review paper considered briquette as a viable and sustainable option for meeting the energy needs of Nigerian households. It discusses the need to promote briquette utilization among government, private sector and civil society organizations. In addition, there is need for the development of low cost technology that will enhance its acceptability.</em></p> A. O. Omole O. S. Areo A. L. Adejoba O. L. Aguda S. O. Afolabi Copyright (c) 2023 RENEWABLE 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 3 1 32 42 CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS ON FLOODS AND FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA: THE WAY FORWARD <p><em>Climate change is a global phenomenon that poses a serious threat to human existence. Human activities are the major drivers of the modification of the earth's climate system, leading to an increase in the earth’s temperature and causing global warming. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) constitute a large proportion of human activities that orchestrate global warming.&nbsp; Experts have revealed that the concentration of GHGs has geometrically increased and the current trend of GHG emissions, has been implicated in the estimated rise in the average global temperature by 4.5°C, in the next eight years. This will aggravate some of the consequences of climate change such as floods, reduced agricultural production and food insecurity. In Nigeria, various incidences have been linked to climate change, with increased flooding episodes, loss of agricultural produce and food scarcity as some of them. There is therefore a need for the development of proactive strategies </em><em>for curtailing and mitigating the effect of climate change in Nigeria. This study was conceptualized to review the implications of climate change on flooding and food insecurity in Nigeria. It also provided some recommendations as panaceas to the problem. </em></p> A. O. Onefeli S. A. Egbebi O. H. Akinade R. O. Ajiboye C. P. Ngwuli Copyright (c) 2023 RENEWABLE 2023-08-24 2023-08-24 3 1 43 54 GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH OF Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. AND Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. <p><em>Nursery experiments were conducted during the rainy season to assess the early growth of </em><em>Terminalia ivorensis and Khaya senegalensis seedlings in order to ascertain the suitability of the &nbsp;species for possible plantation establishment in Nigerian drylands. One hundred seeds from each species were germinated, and ten uniformly growing seedlings were</em> <em>selected from each species at two weeks-after-planting. </em><em>Growth assessment was carried out for 4 months after transplanting</em><em> These were sown in </em><em>25 cm x 25 </em><em>cm polypots filled with topsoil and replicated 4 times. Germination Percentage (GP) of seeds was determined; and Mean Germination Time (MGT) was ascertained using germination kinetic models.</em> <em>Terminalia ivorensis had a mean height/month of 12.31 cm, while Khaya senegalensis was 13.97 cm. Mean number of leaves/month were 10.88 and 9.20, while &nbsp;mean basal diameters were 1.98 mm and 11.20 mm, for Terminalia and Khaya seedlings , respectively. Mean biomass raw-weights were 1.29 g and 1.43 g, while mean dry biomass were 0.76 g and 0.84g </em><em>for the concurrent species</em><em>. T</em><em>here were no significant differences in </em><em>the height and number of leaves</em><em> of the two species, while their basal diameters differed.</em><em> The nursery performance of both species</em> <em>indicate their ameliorability to growth in drylands. Hence, Terminalia ivorensis and Khaya senegalensis </em><em>could be raised for </em><em>large scale afforestation or reforestation in the dryland environments.</em></p> A. O. Salami J. O. Gbadebo E. A. Shittu Copyright (c) 2023 RENEWABLE 2023-10-10 2023-10-10 3 1 55 62 INFLUENCE OF HUMAN-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE SPREAD OF COVID-19 IN NIGERIA <p><em>This study evaluated the knowledge and perceptions of respondents regarding the impact of human-animal interactions and climate change on the Coronavirus pandemic. Data were collected through a nationwide analytic cross-sectional survey with the aid of a structured questionnaire made available online. The questionnaire consisted of 26 items divided into four sections (socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge and attitudes towards COVID-19; COVID-19 and human-animal interactions; COVID-19 and climate change) while participants’ responses were scored using the ‘Likert-type’ scale. The percentages of responses obtained were calculated, while data collected were analyzed, descriptively. More males participated in the survey with most respondents being between the ages of 41-50 years. Most participants had postgraduate education, lived in urban areas, practiced Christianity, and were from the southwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria. All respondents were aware of the existence of COVID-19, as a transmissible disease while about 93.95% reported touching of face, nose, and mouth with contaminated hands as the route of COVID-19 transmission. About 45.1% of respondents affirmed that they always took precautions when interacting with animals while 44.19% believed that the increasing spread of disease-carrying pests is a consequence of climate change. Though a high level of awareness of COVID-19 was noted, there was a need for more aggressive sensitization of people especially in the rural areas on the impact of COVID-19 disease on human and environmental health. </em></p> A. J. Jubril A. A. Adekola A. T. Adetuga L. A. Adekunle A. O. Omonona Copyright (c) 2023 RENEWABLE 2023-10-19 2023-10-19 3 1 63 73