RENEWABLE <p>The Journal, RENEWABLE - is an official publication of the Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Ibadan; that is published twice (June and December) a year in one volume. The Journal publishes carefully peer-reviewed original research articles on various aspects of renewable natural resources, forestry, environment, aquaculture, wildlife, ecotourism, and fisheries management. It covers diverse areas such as production, management, products, biotechnology, socio-economics, extension, health, physiology, nutrition, feeds and feedstuff, breeding and genetics, reproduction, farming systems, and man-flora-fauna interactions within the context of sustainable management of renewable natural resources. Review articles covering new developments in the aforementioned fields are also acceptable.</p> en-US (Prof. Jimoh Saka oladunni) (Samuel Olalekan Olajuyigbe) Tue, 11 Oct 2022 10:10:49 +0000 OJS 60 Growth performance and nutrient retention of rabbits fed graded levels of dietary cooked mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) <p>Globally, maize is recognized as a major energy feed ingredient in the livestock industry. This has resulted in competition for maize between man and animals as a basic energy source in diets. The resultant effect is the high cost of maize translating into a high cost of animal feeds. This has necessitated the exploration of some unconventional ingredients such as mango seeds as substitutes or partial replacements for maize in animal feed. In an 8-week feeding trial experiment, forty-eight weaner chinchilla rabbits were randomly allotted to four treatments containing 0% (T1), 35% (T2), 40% (T3) and 45% (T4) inclusions of sun-dried cooked mango seed kernel (CMSK) as substitutes for maize in animal feed. Each treatment consisted of six replicates of two rabbits, each. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and, fat and protein retention were determined. Data obtained were analysed at P&lt;0.05 level of significance. The inclusion of CMSK did not significantly affect feed intake. The daily weight gain of rabbits in T1 (8.01g), T2 (8.26g), and T3 (8.10g) were similar and significantly higher than the weight gain of rabbits fed T4 diet (7.23g). However, FCR did not significantly differ among treatments. The fat retention of rabbits ranged from 66.36% (T4) to 85.21% (T1), while protein retention was least for rabbits fed T4 (45.73%) and highest for those fed T3 (61.38%) diet. The study revealed that CMSK (40% substitution) could be incorporated into rabbit diets without deleterious effects on growth performance, fat and protein retention.</p> G. J. Olatunji, F. G. Adebiyi Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Tue, 18 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Growth response and gall formation of Milicia excelsa C. C. Berg seedlings grown on organically amended soil during Phytolyma fusca Walker (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) attack <p>Propagation of <em>Milicia excelsa</em> is severely threatened by a gall-forming psyllid (<em>Phytolyma </em><em>fusca</em>), which causes stunted growth and could result in plant mortality. This study evaluated the effect of different organic manures on the growth and gall formation of <em>M. excelsa</em> seedlings during <em>P</em><em>.</em> <em>fusca </em>attack. Six month-old uniformly growing seedlings were potted in topsoil amended with poultry droppings (T2), cattle dung (T3), and pig faeces (T4), at a mixture ratio of 2:1 (5kg topsoil: 2.5 kg manure), while untreated topsoil served as control (T1). The experiment was conducted using a completely randomised design and each treatment was replicated 60 times. Data were obtained on seedling height, collar diameter, number of leaves and gall formation (number of galls and number of ruptured galls), for 22 weeks. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at p&lt;0.05 level of significance. Seedlings treated with T4 had the highest height (46.21±2.59 cm) while T1 had the least (23.4±0.82 cm). Seedlings in T2 treatment had the highest collar diameter (0.77±0.03 cm), followed by T4 (0.74±0.04 cm) and T3 (0.67±0.02 cm), while T1 had the least (0.46±0.02cm). Cattle dung treated seedlings (T3) had the highest number of leaves (10.48±1.32) while T1 had the least (6.5±0.83). Gall formation was observed after 12 weeks, and T2 seedlings had the highest number of ruptured galls (1.70±1.17) while T1 had the least (1.50±1.94). Soil amendment with organic manure improved seedling growth of <em>M</em><em>.</em><em> excelsa</em><em> and</em> could not control <em>P.</em> <em>fusca </em>attack.</p> V. N. Olorunnibe, A. A. Omoloye, Y. O. Alabi Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Tue, 18 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Wildlife species diversity in Oli Complex of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria <p>The survey of wildlife species diversity is important for management and decision making in Wildlife Parks in order to achieve effective conservation. Up-to-date information on the diverse fauna species in Kainji Lake National Park is scarce. Therefore, wild animal species diversity in the National Park was assessed. The line transect and total enumeration count methods were used in the study. Oli Complex was stratified into five line transects laid at 5 km intervals and then a census of wild animals was taken following standard procedures. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Fifty-nine taxa were identified with 4,665 individuals enumerated. A total of 24 Mammalia, 24 Avifauna, 8 Reptilia, 1 Amphibia and 2 Mollusca species were identified. Buffon’s kob <em>(Kobus kob kob</em>) was the most abundant (2,019), followed by the Olive baboon (<em>Papio anubis</em>) (963), helmeted Guinea fowl (<em>Numidea melagris</em>) (189) and Red Flanked (RF) duiker<em> (Cephalophus rufilatus) </em>(118). Dominance was low (0.2) with high diversity index (0.8), low evenness (0.2); that was moderately spread but not equally (0.6) distributed within the study area. Buffon’s kob had the highest relative importance index (24.13%), while Guinea fowl had the least (3.27%). Buffon’s kob had the highest density (40.38/ km<sup>2</sup>), followed by Olive baboon (19.26/km<sup>2</sup>), Guinea fowl (3.78/km<sup>2</sup>), Roan antelope (3.32/ km<sup>2</sup>) and Red Flanked duiker (2.36/ km<sup>2</sup>). Oli Complex of Kainji Lake National Park had a high wildlife diversity and supported a wide range of animal species.</p> S. O. Olajesu, F. L. Oni, O. S. Olubode Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Tue, 18 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and identification of fungi from African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) skin ulcers cultured in Abia State, Nigeria <p>Fifty African Catfish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>) with skin ulcers were purposively sampled from farms in five local government areas (Umuahia South, Ikwuano, Umuahia North, Osisioma and Aba North) in Abia state, Nigeria. The fungi associated with the skin ulcers were isolated and identified using macroscopic and microscopic morphologies. The frequency of isolation and prevalence of the fungal genera were calculated. The infection rate of fungi on fish samples from Umuahia South, Ikwuano, Umuahia North, Osisioma and Aba North was 100%, 80%, 60%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Five fungal genera (<em>Aspergillus</em>,<em> Saprolegnia</em>, <em>Penicillium, Aphanomyces </em>and <em>Fusarium</em>) were isolated from the samples. A total of 98 fungal isolates were identified with <em>Aspergillus </em>spps being the highest (55), while <em>Fusarium </em>spps (2) and <em>Aphanomyces </em>spps (1) were least. The prevalence of the fungal genera isolated was <em>Aspergillus</em>: 70%, 60%, 40%, 30% and 40%; <em>Saprolegnia</em>: 50%, 60%, 60%, 50% and 50%; <em>Penicillium</em>: 40%, 20%, 20%, 10% and 20% in Umuahia South, Ikwuano, Umuahia North, Osisioma and Aba North, respectively, while <em>Aphanomyces</em> and <em>Fusarium</em> showed 10% and 20% prevalence, only in Umuahia South. The frequency of isolation of <em>Aspergillus (</em>41.7%, 75%, 40%, 52.2% and 60%)<em>, Saprolegnia (</em>25%, 14.3%, 50%, 52.2% and 26.7%), and <em>Penicillium (</em>8.3%, 10.7%, 20%, 17.4% and 13.3%) varied in Umuahia South, Ikwuano, Umuahia North, Osisioma and Aba north, respectively; whereas <em>Fusarium </em>(16.7%) and <em>Aphanomyces</em> (8.3%) were found only in Umuahia South. The fungal organisms have the potential to be pathogenic. Hence, there is need for screening of African Catfish with skin ulcers, to ascertain the presence of disease-causing organisms and possibly avoid human consumption.</p> C. A. Ozioko, J. N. Oginyi Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Tue, 18 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and yield response of Okra to method and time of poultry manure application under rain-fed conditions <p>Matching nutrient demand with supply is critical for plant growth, development and yield. This study investigated the growth and yield response of Okra (<em>Abelmoscus esculentus</em>) to the method and time of poultry manure application, in order to match the time of optimum nutrient release with nutrient uptake by the okra plants. A randomized complete block design with 6 treatments and 3 replicates was used for this study. The poultry manure was applied at three different times: During planting (0-DOP), 2 weeks after planting (2-WAP) and 4 weeks after planting (4-WAP) using two application methods: surface-broadcasting and plow-incorporation. Results showed significant differences in method and time of application of poultry manure. The application of poultry manure, using plow-incorporation method on the day of planting (0-DOPI), significantly improved growth and yield (5.88 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of okra. Also, 0-DOPI treatment took fewer days to attain 50% flowering (55 days) and fruit setting (58 days). This indicated that the match between nutrient demand and supply was most evident under 0-DOPI treatment. However, the surface broadcasting method at 2-WAP and 4-WAP, could not match release and supply of nutrients with critical developmental stages of okra. Hence, poultry manure incorporation at time of planting could improve okra production in the study area.</p> P. M. P. Mornya, A. Mansaray Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Tue, 18 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and yield response of Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaf extract and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer application <p>In a nursery experiment, the growth and yield response of sweet pepper to Moringa leaf extracts and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer application were investigated. Sweet pepper seeds were drilled on 1 m x 5 m nursery beds, allowed to germinate and develop into seedlings for four weeks before transplanting into twenty pots, each containing 8 kg of soil. Fresh Moringa leaves were collected, air dried at room temperature, and the active ingredients extracted using ethanol and water, following standard procedures. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design and pepper seedlings were treated with 20 ml foliar application of Moringa leaf extracts (ethanol and water extractions); NPK 15:15:15 (at 280 kg/ha) using the side dressing method, while control seedlings were untreated. The treatments were replicated five times and foliar application was done at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after transplanting. The growth and yield parameters were measured weekly, from the second to tenth week after transplanting. Data were analysed using ANOVA at p?0.05 level of significance. There were significant differences in the growth and yield parameters. The NPK 15:15:15 treatment had the highest plant height (28.20 cm), collar diameter (4.07 mm), number of leaves (113.60), leaf area (38.20 cm<sup>2</sup>) and yield (8.43 t/ha). Ethanol extracts of Moringa leaves had a better growth performance (plant height: 23.00 cm, number of leaves: 87.60, collar diameter: 3.46 mm and yield: 5.24 t/ha), while the control treatment had the least. The NPK 15:15:15 and Moringa leaf extracts enhanced growth and yield of sweet pepper. Therefore, they can be used to boost sweet pepper production in the study area.</p> T. O. Fawole, O. J. Popoola , O. S. Oladapo, T. O. Oyaniyi, S. K. Omilabu, O. O. Godspower, O. O. Awodutire Copyright (c) 2022 RENEWABLE Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000