GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH OF Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. AND Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss.


  • A. O. Salami 1Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Upland Forest Research Station, Gombe State, Nigeria
  • J. O. Gbadebo Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5054, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • E. A. Shittu Department of Agronomy, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano State, Nigeria


Nursery experiments were conducted during the rainy season to assess the early growth of Terminalia ivorensis and Khaya senegalensis seedlings in order to ascertain the suitability of the  species for possible plantation establishment in Nigerian drylands. One hundred seeds from each species were germinated, and ten uniformly growing seedlings were selected from each species at two weeks-after-planting. Growth assessment was carried out for 4 months after transplanting These were sown in 25 cm x 25 cm polypots filled with topsoil and replicated 4 times. Germination Percentage (GP) of seeds was determined; and Mean Germination Time (MGT) was ascertained using germination kinetic models. Terminalia ivorensis had a mean height/month of 12.31 cm, while Khaya senegalensis was 13.97 cm. Mean number of leaves/month were 10.88 and 9.20, while  mean basal diameters were 1.98 mm and 11.20 mm, for Terminalia and Khaya seedlings , respectively. Mean biomass raw-weights were 1.29 g and 1.43 g, while mean dry biomass were 0.76 g and 0.84g for the concurrent species. There were no significant differences in the height and number of leaves of the two species, while their basal diameters differed. The nursery performance of both species indicate their ameliorability to growth in drylands. Hence, Terminalia ivorensis and Khaya senegalensis could be raised for large scale afforestation or reforestation in the dryland environments.


Adegoke, F., Akinyele, A. and Ogunwande, O. (2014). Effect of seed size and source on early seedling growth of Terminalia ivorensis (Chev.). Agriculture and Forestry 60 (2): 157-166.

Agboola, D. A., Idowu, W. F. and Kadiri, M. (2006). Seed germination and seedling growth of the Mexican sunflower Tithonia diversifolia (Compositae) in Nigeria, Africa. International Journal of Tropical Biology 54(2): 385-402.

Alamu, L. O. and Alabi, A. (2015). Influence of temperature differentials on germination and growth of Terminalia ivorensis (A. Chev). Science Research 3(6): 296-299.

Amponsah, J. O., Maaleku, B. K., Djagbletey, G. D., Asomaning, J.M., Debrah, D. K., Kumah, F. and Tandoh, P. K. (2018). Phenology and seed germination improvement of Terminalia superba and Terminalia ivorensis in a moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana. Ghana Journal of Forestry 34 (1): 1–14.

Borokini, T. I., Onefeli, A. O., Babalola, F. D. (2013). Inventory analysis of Milicia excels (Welw C. C. Berg) in Ibadan (Ibadan Metropolis and University of Ibadan), Nigeria. Journal of Plant Studies 2 (1): 97-109.

Dorthe, J. and Sylvie, G. (2003). Khaya senegalensis (Desr) - Taxonomy and nomenclature. Seed Leaflet No. 66.

Gbadebo, J. O. and Salami, A. O. (2008). Effects of pre-treatment on seed germination and seedling emergence of Tamarindus indica (Linn). Journal of Sustainable Environmental Management. 1 (1): 24-28.

Hassan, F. A. and Ali, M. M. (2013). Environmental conditions prevailing in habitat affects seedlings growth (Khaya senegalensis). International Journal of Scientific and Research 3(3).

Haysom, K. and Murphy, S. (2003). The status of invasiveness of forest tree species outside their natural habitat: A global review and discussion Paper. Rome, Italy: FAO. . Retrieved 20/11/2015.

Ibe, A. E., Adeyemi, A. A., Nwuda, B. N., Asiabaka, C. C. and Onuoha, G. N. (2015). Seed germination and seedling growth of Terminalia ivorensis (A. Chev) in different growth media. FUTO Journal Series 1:(2): 138-145.

ICRAF, (2016). Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. International Centre for Research in Agroforestry.

IUCN, (2006). Red list of threatened species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

Jegede, O. C., Onefeli, A. O., Gbadebo, J. O., and Adeniji, I. (2020). Biomass accumulation of selected indigenous species under flood condition. Journal of Forestry Research and Management 17(3): 14-21.

Keay, R. W. J. (1989). Trees of Nigeria. A revised edition, Clarendon Press Oxford.

McDonald, I. and Omoruyi, O. (2003). Effect of seed pre-treatment on germination of two surface types of Dialium guineense. Seed Technology 25: 41-44.

Omokhua, G. E., Ogu, A., and Oyebade, B. A. (2015). Effects of different sowing media on germination and early seedling growth of Terminalia ivorensis (A. Chev). International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 4: 119-122.

Onefeli, A. O. and Adesoye, P. O. (2014). Early growth assessment of selected exotic and indigenous tree species in Nigeria. South-East European Forestry 5 (1): 45-51.

Onefeli, A. O. and Agwu, P. O. (2015). Prospect of Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C. Berg for Multi-tree species Agroforestry. South-East European Forestry 6 (2): 249-256.

Onefeli, A. O. and Akinyele, A. O. (2014). Macropropagation of Dennettia tripetala Baker f. South-East European Forestry 5 (2): 135-144.

Orwa, C., Mutua, A., Kindt, R., Jamnadass, R. and Simons, A. (2009). Agroforestry database: A tree reference and selection guide. Version 4.0. Retrieved 20/11/2015.

Quedraogo, A. S., Thomsen, K., Engels, J. M. and Engelmann, F. (1999). Recalcitrant seeds. Forest Seed Science and Technology 28: 227-234.

Sacande, M. and Pritchard, H. W. (2004). Seed research network on African trees for conservation and sustainable use. Forest Genetic Resources 31: 313 - 325.

Salami, A. O. (2018). Pre-germination treatments of some indigenous Sudan savannah tree species in Nigeria. A Dissertation Report for M.Sc. Award. Department of Geography, Faculty of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bayero University, Kano.

Salami, A. O. and Salami, N. T. (2009). Effects of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) and water pre-treatments on seed germination and seedling emergence of Adansonia digitata (Linn). Journal of Agricultural Technology and Rural Development 1 (1): 44-51.

Smith, N., Scott, A. M., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D. V. and Scott, V. H. (2004). Flowering plants of the tropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Pp. 105.

Tompset, P. B. and Pritchard, H. W. (1998). The effect of chilling and moisture stress on germination, desiccation tolerance and longevity of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seeds. Annals of Botany 82: 249-261.




How to Cite

Salami, A. O. ., Gbadebo, . J. O., & Shittu , E. A. (2023). GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH OF Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. AND Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. RENEWABLE, 3(1), 55–62. Retrieved from