• C. O. Fakorede Forest Products Development and Utilization, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • C. A. Odega Forest Products Development and Utilization, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • G. T. Anguruwa Forest Products Development and Utilization, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibad


Plant metabolites, Phytochemicals, Medicinal plants, Tropical Almond


Terminalia catappa is a perennial tree species that has been introduced in gardens, parks and farmlands as an ornamental and shade tree, sand-dune stabilizer and source of fuelwood. This study assessed the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of phytochemicals present in the leaves and bark of T. catappa. It discussed the medicinal and nutritive potentials of the leaves and bark. Nine metabolites (alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols and steroids) were identified in the leaves while two of the metabolites were absent in the bark (anthraquinones and steroids). The alkaloids content (36.65% and 35.15%) was highest, followed by saponins (2.90% and 2.25%) and terpenoids (0.25% and 0.60%) in leaves and bark. Similarly, flavonoids (19.69 µg and 15.72 µg) were highest, followed by tannins (4.23 µg and 2.83 µg) and phenols (2.07 µg and 1.76 µg) in leaves and bark, respectively. The phytochemicals are capable of fighting oxidative stress and possess therapeutic properties that could be potentially explored in drug discovery.


Ajiboye, A., Adedayo, M., Babatunde, S. and Ajuwon, B. (2016). Antibacterial potency and phytochemical screening of the bark of Terminalia catappa against some clinical isolates. International Journal of Phytomedicine 8: 193 - 201.

Allyn, O., Kusumawati, E. and Nugroho R. (2018). Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia catappa brown leaf extracts against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. F1000. Research 7: 1-19.

Atanasov, A., Waltenberger, B., Pferschy-Wenzig, E. Linder, T., Wawrosch, C., Uhrin, P., Temml, V., Wanh, L., Schwaiger, S., Heiss, E., Rollinger, J., Schuster, D., Breuss, J., Bochkov, V., Mihovilovic, M., Kopp, B., Bauer, R., Dirsch, V. and Stuppner, H. (2015). Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: a review. Biotechnology Advances 33(8): 1582–1614.

Azrul, L., Nurulaini, R., Adzemi, M., Marina, H. and Effendy, A. (2014). Tannins quantification in Terminalia catappa leaves extract and Antihelmenthic potential evaluation. Journal of Natural Products 7: 98-103.

Botelho, A., Pierezan F., Soto-Blanco B. and Melo M. (2019). A review of cardiac glycosides: Structure, toxicokinetics, clinical signs, diagnosis and antineoplastic potential. Toxicon 158: 63-68.

Brown, S. and Cooprider, K. (2013). Terminalia catappa. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative extension service, University of Florida, IFAS, Lee County Extension, Florida.

Chikezie, P., Agonuo, E. and Amadi B. (2008). Biochemistry, Practical and Research Methods; A fundamental Approach. Mega Soft Publishers: Owerri, Nigeria.

Chiroma, A., Adamu, T., Bandiya, H., Rabah, A. and Mabu, M. (2018). Phytochemical screening of Terminalia avicennioides (Guill and Perr). A potential pharmaceutical agent. Dutse Journal of Pure and Applied sciences 4(2); 301 – 309.

El-Aziz, M. Ashour A. and Melad, G. (2019). A review on saponins from medicinal plants: chemistry, isolation, and determination. Journal of Nanomedicine Research; 8(1):6?12. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2019.08.00199

Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, (2000). Oral chronic toxicity and the carcinogenic effects of phenol. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Phenol and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) Toxicological Profile for Phenol. Washington, DC. 108: 95 - 102.

Gayathri, S., Ranjitha, S., Saranya, S. and Lokesh, R. (2019). Phytochemical profiles, in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities of Terminalia catappa. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Review and Research 55(10): 51 – 59.

Germosén-Robineau, L. (2014). Farmacopea Vegetal Caribeña. CICY editorial, Yucatán, Mexico. Pp. 360.

Indumathi, C., Durgadevi, G., Nithyavani, S., and Gayathri, P. (2014). Estimation of terpenoid content and its microbial property in Enicostemma Litorrale. Recent Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering 6(9): 4264 – 4267.

Jensen, M. (1995). Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia. An illustrated Field guide. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO- Regional office for Asia and the pacific (RAP). No-38, vii+229. Pp. 29.

Katiki, M., Gomes, A., Barbieri, A., Pacheco, P., Rodrigues, L., Verissimo, C., Gutmanis, G., Piza, A., Louandini, H. and Ferreira, J. (2017). Terminalia catappa; Chemical composition, in vitro and in vivo effects on Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology 246: 118-123. Doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.09.006

Koomson, D., Kwakye, B., Darkwah, W., Odum, B., Asante, M., and Aidoo, G. (2018). Phytochemical constituents, total saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and vitamin C contents of ethanol extracts of five Solanum torvum fruits. Pharmacognosy Journal 10(5): 946-950. DOI:10.5530/pj.2018.5.160

Kurek, J. (2019). Alkaloids - their importance in nature and human life. Intech Open. Doi: 10.5772/intechopen.85400

Marinova, D., Ribarova, F. and Atanassova, M. (2005). Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 40(3): 255 – 260.

Mariod, A., Matthaus, B. and Hussein, I. (2008). Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from different parts of Sclerocarya birrea. International Journal of Food Science and Technology l43: 921– 926. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01543.x

Mbengul, R., Guessend, N., M’boh, G., Golly, J., Okou, C., Nguessan, J., Dosso, M., and Djaman, J. (2013). Phytochemical screening and study of comparative antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves and bark of Terminalia catappa on multiresistant strains. Journal of Applied Biosciences

Mininel, F., Leonardo-Junior, C., Espanha, L., Resende, F., Varanda, E., Leite, C., Vilegas, W. and Dos-Santos, L. (2014). Characterization and quantification of compounds in the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and their mutagenic activity. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Doi: 10.1155/2014/ 676902.

Orwa, C., Mutual, A., Kindt, R., Jamnadass, R. and Anthony, S. (2009). Agroforestry Database: a tree reference and selection guide. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya.

Pandya, N., Tigari, P., Dupadahalli, K., Kamurthy, H. and Nadendla, R. (2013). Anti-tumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlichascites carcino main Swiss albino mice. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 45: 464–469. DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.117754

Rajesh, B., Potty, V., and Sreeleksnmy, S. (2016). Study of total phenol, flavonoids, tannin contents and phytochemical screening of various crude extracts of Terminalia catappa leaf, stem bark and fruit. International Journal of Applied and Pure Science and Agriculture 2 (6): 291-296.

Shreda, M. Arpita, P., Aminesh, S., Suchusmita, R., Mandal, A., Das, M., Sharabani, P., Das, K and Dilip, K. (2013). Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia catappa bark extract with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 3(12): 960–966. Doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60186-0

Silalahi M. (2022). Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L.): Potential utilization as foodstuffs and traditional medicine. Open Access Research Journal of Life Sciences 03(02): 35–41. Doi:10.53022/oarjls.2022.3.2.0041

Singh, D., Singh, S., Salim, K. and Srivastava, R. (2012). Estimation of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India). International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 63(4): 446-452.

Tizhe, T., Alonge, S. and Dakare, M. (2016). Comparative study of the quantitative phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of five tree species. European Journal of Advanced Research in Biological and Life Sciences 4(1): 29 – 38.




How to Cite

Fakorede, C. O., Odega, C. A. ., & Anguruwa, G. T. . (2024). PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF Terminalia catappa Linn. FOR BIOMEDICINAL AND NUTRITIVE PURPOSES. RENEWABLE, 3(1), 89–100. Retrieved from