This is an outdated version published on 10/18/2022. Read the most recent version.

Growth response and gall formation of Milicia excelsa C. C. Berg seedlings grown on organically amended soil during Phytolyma fusca Walker (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) attack


  • V. N. Olorunnibe Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • A. A. Omoloye University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Y. O. Alabi Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria


Iroko, Organic manure, Gall-forming psyllid, Soil amendment


Propagation of Milicia excelsa is severely threatened by a gall-forming psyllid (Phytolyma fusca), which causes stunted growth and could result in plant mortality. This study evaluated the effect of different organic manures on the growth and gall formation of M. excelsa seedlings during P. fusca attack. Six month-old uniformly growing seedlings were potted in topsoil amended with poultry droppings (T2), cattle dung (T3), and pig faeces (T4), at a mixture ratio of 2:1 (5kg topsoil: 2.5 kg manure), while untreated topsoil served as control (T1). The experiment was conducted using a completely randomised design and each treatment was replicated 60 times. Data were obtained on seedling height, collar diameter, number of leaves and gall formation (number of galls and number of ruptured galls), for 22 weeks. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at p<0.05 level of significance. Seedlings treated with T4 had the highest height (46.21±2.59 cm) while T1 had the least (23.4±0.82 cm). Seedlings in T2 treatment had the highest collar diameter (0.77±0.03 cm), followed by T4 (0.74±0.04 cm) and T3 (0.67±0.02 cm), while T1 had the least (0.46±0.02cm). Cattle dung treated seedlings (T3) had the highest number of leaves (10.48±1.32) while T1 had the least (6.5±0.83). Gall formation was observed after 12 weeks, and T2 seedlings had the highest number of ruptured galls (1.70±1.17) while T1 had the least (1.50±1.94). Soil amendment with organic manure improved seedling growth of M. excelsa and could not control P. fusca attack.


Chau, L. M. and Heong, K. L. (2005). Effects of organic fertilizers on insect pest and diseases of rice. Omonrice, 13: 26–33.

Costello, M. and Altieri, M. (1995). Abundance, growth rate and parasitism of Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphidae) on broccoli grown in living mulches. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 52: 187–196.

Costello, M. (1994). Broccoli growth, yield and level of aphid infestation in leguminous living mulches. Biology Agriculture Horticulture. 10, 207–222.

Cullinery, T. W. and Pimentel, D. (1986). Ecological effects of organic agricultural practices on insect populations. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 15 (4): 253–266.

Eigenbrode, S. D. and Pimentel, D. (1988). Effects of manure and chemical fertilizers on insect pest populations on collards. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 20 (2): 109–125

Fallahpour, F., Ghorbani, R., Nassiri, M. and Hosseini, M. (2015). Demographic parameters of Lipaphis erysimi on canola cultivars under different fertilization regimes. Journal of Agriculture Sciences and Technology 17: 35–47.

Godase, S. K. and Patel, C. B. (2001). Studies on the influence of organic manures and fertilizer doses on the intensity of sucking pests infesting brinjal. Plant Proceeding Bulletin. 53: 10-12.

Jahn, G. C. (2004). Effect of soil nutrients on the growth, survival and fecundity of insect pests of rice: an overview and a theory of pest outbreaks with consideration of research approaches. Multitrophic interactions in Soil and Integrated Control”. International Organization for Biological Control Bulletin 27 (1): 115-122.

Letourneau, D. K., Drinkwater, L. and Shennan, C. (1996). Effects of soil management on crop nitrogen and insect damage in organic vs. conventional tomato ?elds. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment. 57: 179–187.

Listinger, J. (1993). A farming systems approach to insect pest management for upland and lowland rice farmers in tropical Asia. In: Altieri, M. (Ed.), Crop Protection Strategies for Subsistence Farmers. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 45–103.

Magdoff, F. and Van, E. S. (2000). Building soils for better crops. Washington DC: SARE.

Miguel, A. A. and Clara I. N. (2003). Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems. Soil and Tillage Research 72 (2): 203-211.

Mochiah, M. B. and Baidoo, P. K. (2011).The influence of nutrient application on the pests and natural enemies of pests of okra Abelmoschus esculentus. Journal of Applied Biosciences 41: 2765 – 2771.

Olajuyigbe, S. O., Adegeye, A. O. and Olorunnibe, V. N. (2015). Control of Phytolyma lata Walker (Scott.) attack on Milicia excelsa (welw.) C. C. Berg seedlings under plantation condition. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Science 12:78–87 http://dx/

Oyedepo, J., Adeofm, C. O., Bergl, R., Ikemeh, R., Oates, J. and Ogunsesan, D. (2011). GlS-supported survey of cow-lands, ram forest in South Western Nigeria. Proceedings of the Environmental Management Conference, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Phelan, P. L, Mason, J. F. and Stinner. B. R. (1995). Soil fertility management and host preference by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, on Zea mays: a comparison of organic and conventional chemical farming. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 56:1-8.

Sétamou, M., Schulthess, F., Bosque-Pérez, N. A., and Thomasodjo, A. (1993). Effect of plant nitrogen and silica on the bionomics of Sesamia calamistis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 83: 405–411.

Sétamou, M., Schulthess, F., Bosque-Pérez, N. A., and Thomasodjo, A. (1995). The effect of stem and ear borers on maize subjected to different nitrogen treatments. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 77: 205–210.

Sinha, R., Singh, B., Rai, P. K, Kumar, A., Jamwal, S. and Sinha, B. K. (2018). Soil fertility management and its impact on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Cogent Food and Agriculture 4: 1450941.

Teetes, G. (1980). Breeding sorghums resistant to insects. In: Maxwell, F., Jennings, P. (Eds.), Breeding Plants Resistant to Insects. Wiley, New York, pp. 457–485.

Ugwu, J. A. (2013). Bioecology and management of Iroko gall bug, Phytolyma lata Scott (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C. C. Berg in South West Nigeria. PhD Thesis. University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Ugwu, J. A. and Omoloye, A. A. (2015). Perception on the constraints to propagation of Iroko (Milicia excelsa) (Welw.) C. C. Berg in South West Nigeria. Research Journal of Forestry 9:48-57. doi: 10.3923/rjf.2015.48.57


10/11/2022 — Updated on 10/18/2022


How to Cite

Olorunnibe, V. N., Omoloye, A. A., & Alabi, Y. O. (2022). Growth response and gall formation of Milicia excelsa C. C. Berg seedlings grown on organically amended soil during Phytolyma fusca Walker (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) attack. RENEWABLE, 2(1), 20–27. Retrieved from (Original work published October 11, 2022)